Friday, August 31, 2007


Tourism Companies Istanbul Stock Exchange(ISE) Companies listed on ISE Turkish new liraTurkish new lira Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey European Union-Turkey Customs Union Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline(BTC) Southeastern Anatolia Project Foreign purchases of real estate in Turkey
Coins were introduced in 2005 in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 new kuruş and 1 new lira. The 1 new kuruş is minted in brass and the 5, 10 and 25 new kuruş in cupro-nickel, whilst the 50 new kuruş and 1 new lira are bimetallic. All coins show portraits of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
To the dismay of the European Central Bank, the sizes and compositions of the 50 new kuruş and 1 new lira coins clearly resemble those of the €1 and €2 coins respectively. (See comparison photo in [1] of YTL 1 coin and €2 coin.) This could cause confusion in the eurozone. It also caused trouble to businesses using vending machines (particularly at airports) in the eurozone since a number of vending machines at the time accepted the 1 new lira coin as a €2 coin. Since €2 is worth roughly four times more, vending machines affected had to be upgraded at the expense of their owners.


Economy of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Thursday, August 30, 2007

For other ships of this name see HMS Hood (disambiguation).
HMS Hood (pennant number 51) was a battlecruiser of the Royal Navy. She was one of four Admiral-class battlecruisers ordered in mid-1916 under the Emergency War Programme. Although the design was drastically revised after the Battle of Jutland, it was realised that there were serious limitations even to the revised design; for this reason, and because of evidence that the German battlecruisers that they were designed to counter were unlikely to be completed, work on her sister ships was suspended in 1917. As a result, Hood was Britain's last completed battlecruiser. She was named after the 18th century Admiral Samuel Hood.

Construction of Hood began at the John Brown & Company shipyards in Clydebank, Scotland, on 1 September 1916. Following the loss of three British battlecruisers at the Battle of Jutland, 5,000 tons of extra armour and bracing was added to Hood's design. The intention behind this change was to give her protection against 15 inch (381 mm) guns, such as her own— in theory moving her to the status of a true battleship. This led to some describing her as the first fast battleship, since the Hood appeared to have improvements over the revolutionary Queen Elizabeth-class battleships. To add to the confusion, Royal Navy documents of the period often describe any battleship with a speed of over about 24 knots (44 km/h) as a battlecruiser, regardless of the amount of protective armour. Classification as a battlecruiser notwithstanding, she was the largest capital ship in the British fleet at the time of her commissioning; Hood was much longer than any other British capital ship and only marginally lighter (at full load) than Britain's heaviest ever battleship, HMS Vanguard, which was not commissioned until 1946.
However, the reworking was hurried and incomplete and hence flawed. Only the forward cordite magazines were moved below the shell rooms — cordite explosions destroyed the Royal Navy battlecruisers lost at Jutland. The combination of the deck and side armour did not provide continuous protection against shells arriving at all angles. Most seriously, the deck protection was flawed — spread over three decks, it was designed to explode an incoming shell on impact with the top deck, with much of the energy being absorbed as the exploding shell had to penetrate the armour of the next two decks. The development of effective time delay shells at the end of World War I made this scheme much less effective, as the intact shell would penetrate layers of weak armour and explode deep inside the ship. In addition, she was grossly overweight compared to her original design, making her a wet ship with a highly stressed structure. It was seriously suggested that she should be scrapped before she was launched; the post-war economy drive made replacing her impossible however.
Construction on her sister ships HMS Anson, Howe, and Rodney was stopped in March 1917, although work continued on Hood. Two factors were at work regarding this decision. Firstly, the German ships to which the class were a response were never completed. Secondly, the flaws in her protection and design were apparent: the repeated redesigns of the sister ships did not solve them. Instead, a series of studies leading to the N3 battleship and G3 battlecruiser designs was started.
She was launched on 22 August 1918 by the widow of Admiral Sir Horace Hood, a Jutland casualty and distant relative of the famous Lord Hood for whom the ship was named. After fitting out and trials, she was commissioned on 15 May 1920, under Captain Wilfred Tomkinson, and became flagship of the British Atlantic Fleet's Battle Cruiser Squadron. She had cost £6,025,000 to build. With her conspicuous twin funnels and lean profile, Hood was widely considered a very graceful warship.


Principal characteristics
Hood's protection accounted for 33% of her displacement; a high proportion by British standards, although less than was usual in contemporary German designs (for example, 36% for the battlecruiser SMS Hindenburg). It was apparently proposed to extend the new plating to the whole of the upper deck, removing the conning tower, torpedo tubes and four 5.5 in guns as weight compensation; in the event, only the areas above the magazines were reinforced. As completed, Hood remained susceptible to plunging fire and bombs, and had no margin of protection against the next generation of heavy guns.
The main armament turrets had a frontal armour thickness of 15 in (381 mm), side armour of 11 to 12 in (280 to 305 mm) and a roof of 5 in (127 mm). For protection against torpedoes she was given an "anti-torpedo bulge", an air-filled space backed by an inner reinforced wall. It was a new and effective solution for World War I ships and a common solution to counteract the weight increases that would be otherwise needed for ships built between the two World Wars.

Main belt: 12 in (305 mm) between A and Y barbettes; forward extension 5 to 6 in (127 to 152 mm); aft extension 6 in (152 mm);
Middle belt: 7 in (178 mm) between A and Y barbettes; forward extension 5 in (127 mm);
Upper belt: 5 in (127 mm) amidships, extending forward to A barbette, with a short 4 in (102 mm) extension aft.
Forecastle deck: 1.75 to 2 in (44 to 51 mm);
Upper deck: 2 in (51 mm) over magazines; 0.75 in (19 mm) elsewhere;
Main deck: 3 in (76 mm) over magazines; 1 in (25 mm) elsewhere; plus 2 in (51 mm) slope meeting bottom of main belt;
Lower deck (forward and aft): 3 in (76 mm) over propeller shafts; 2 in (51 mm) magazine crowns; 1 in (25 mm) elsewhere. Protection

Hood was fitted with the BL 15 inch Mark I (381 mm) /42 gun of 1912. This was the then standard weapon of British capital ships and was already mounted on the Queen Elizabeth-class, Revenge-class, Renown-class and other classes of ships. Hood was the first, and in the event the only ship to carry these guns in the Mark II twin mounting.

289 Common Pointed Capped shells (CPC), weight 1,920 lb (871 kg)
672 Armour-Piercing Capped (APC), weight 1,920 lb (871 kg)
30 shrapnel (forward turrets only), weight 1,920 lb (871 kg)
82 practice rounds. Main armament
The secondary (low angle) guns were BL 5.5 inch Mark I (140 mm) /50. These were designed in 1913 for two modified Town-class cruisers being built for the Greek Navy. This gun was 13 cwt (660 kg) lighter than the standard BL 6 inch Mark XII gun and fired a projectile 15 lb (6.8 kg) lighter and therefore easier to handle, allowing for a higher rate of fire. The Greek ships were completed for the Royal Navy as HMS Birkenhead and Chester, introducing this weapon into British service. They were shipped on shielded CP Mark II single mounts capable of elevating from -5 to +30 degrees, and fired 82 lb (37 kg) shells at a rate of 6 to 10 rounds per minute. The muzzle velocity was 2,725 ft/s (830 m/s), giving an effective range of 17,770 yards (16.2 km). The high position of the mountings along the upper deck and the forward shelter deck allowed them to be worked in a seaway, less obstructed by waves and spray.
These guns were removed during the Hood's refit in 1940, after which their magazines were used for 4 inch (102 mm) anti-aircraft ammunition.

Secondary armament
Hood's original anti-aircraft armament consisted of four QF 4 inch (102—mm) L/45 Mark V guns on mountings HA Mark III. These were joined in 1937 by four twin mountings HA/LA Mark XIX for the 1934 model QF 4 inch L/45 Mark XVI gun and the single guns were replaced with a further three Mark XIX mountings in 1940. The mounting could elevate from -10 to +80 degrees able to engage both aircraft and vessels. This gun fired a 31 lb (15 kg) shell at 2,660 ft/s (811 m/s) for an effective range of 18,150 yd (16.6 km). In 1931 a pair of octuple mountings Mark VIII for the QF 2 pounder Mark VIII (40 mm) gun were added, a third mount being added in 1937. Two quadruple mountings Mark I for the 0.5 inch Vickers Mark III (12.7 mm) machine gun were added in 1933 with a further two mountings added in 1937. To these were added 5 Unrotated Projectile (UP) launchers— 20-barrelled launchers for 3 inch (76 mm) rockets that shot their warheads out on three parachutes on lengths of cable that could snag aircraft.

Anti-aircraft armament
Two 21 inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes were mounted amidships on either side, a remainder of shorter range engagements expected during the Great War, but augmented with 4 more in 1940.

Torpedo armament
Hood carried aircraft for part of her service life. She embarked a flight of seaplanes, initially Fairey Flycatchers, then Fairey F3 Fs from 1929 to 1933. At first there were flying-off platforms fitted to "B" and "X" turrets so that wheeled aircraft could be launched from the ship, but these were soon removed as floatplanes became more reliable. A rotatable catapult was installed at the very rear (quarterdeck) of the ship along with a crane for recovery of the plane in 1929, but it was frequently awash when under way and was removed in 1932.
As befitted a vessel her size, Hood carried a large number of small boats, both sailing boats (a 42 ft (12.8 m) launch, 36 ft (11 m) sailing pinnace, 32 ft (9.8 m) cutter, 30 ft (9.1 m) gig, 27 ft (8.2 m) whaler and a 16 ft (4.9 m) dinghy) and powered boats (50 ft (15.2 m) steam pinnace, 45 ft (13.7 m) steam pinnace, 45 ft (13.7 m) and 35 ft (10.7 m) Admiral's barges, 45 ft (13.7 m) motor launch, 35 ft (10.7 m) and 25 ft (7.6 m) motor- and "fast" motor- boats of hard chine construction and a 16 ft (4.9 m) motor dinghy)

HMS Hood (51) Aircraft and boats
In the inter-war years she was the largest warship in the world at a time when the British public felt a close affinity with the Royal Navy. Her name and general characteristics were familiar to most of the public, and she was popularly known as the Mighty Hood. Because of her fame, she spent a great deal of time on cruises and "flying the flag" visits to other countries. In particular she took part in a world-wide cruise between November 1923 and September 1924 in company with HMS Repulse and several smaller ships. This was known as the Cruise of the Special Service Squadron, and it was estimated that 750,000 people visited Hood during that cruise. The future First Sea Lord John H. D. Cunningham served aboard her as navigator for a period in 1920. In 1931 her crew took part in the Invergordon Mutiny.
She was given a major refit from 17 May 1929 to 16 June 1930, and was due to be modernised in 1941 to bring her up to a standard similar to that of other modernised World War I-era capital ships. Ironically, her status as the Royal Navy's finest capital ship meant that her material condition gradually deteriorated due to her near-constant active service, and by the end of the 1930s she was in poor condition and in need of refitting. The outbreak of war made it impossible to remove her from service, and as a consequence she never received the scheduled update. Her condition meant, among other things, that she was unable to attain her top designed speed.

Inter-war service
Hood was transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet in July 1936. In June 1939, she joined the Home Fleet's Battle Cruiser Squadron at Scapa Flow; when war broke out later that year, she was employed principally in patrolling the vicinity of Iceland and the Faroes to protect convoys and intercept German raiders attempting to break out into the Atlantic. In September 1939, she was hit by a 250 kg (550 lb) aircraft bomb with minor damage. As the flagship of Force H, she took part in the destruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir in July 1940, Hood firing 56 rounds of 15 inch shells during the thirty minute action. they were rescued about two hours after the sinking by the destroyer HMS Electra.
The dramatic loss of such a well-known symbol of British naval power had a great effect on many people; some later remembered the news as the most shocking of World War II. Following the loss of the Hood, the Royal Navy concentrated all available resources in pursuit of Bismarck and Prinz Eugen; although Prinz Eugen escaped, Bismarck was eventually sunk after being brought to battle again on 27 May 1941.

World War II
The official Admiralty communiqué on the loss, broadcast on the day of the sinking, reported that: "during the … action, HMS Hood … received an unlucky hit in a magazine and blew up." and examined both Goodall's theory and others (see below). The Board came to a conclusion almost identical to that of the first board, expressed as follows.
That the sinking of Hood was due to a hit from Bismarcks 15 inch shell in or adjacent to Hoods 4 inch or 15 inch magazines, causing them all to explode and wreck the after part of the ship. The probability is that the 4 inch magazines exploded first.

Boards of Enquiry into the sinking
The exact cause of the loss of HMS Hood remains a subject of debate. The principal theories can be summarised as follows.
An extensive review of each of these theories (except that of Preston) is given in Jurens. Such unprotected stowage could have been detonated either by the boat-deck fire or by a shell from Bismarck.
The ship was blown up by her own guns. At the second board, eyewitnesses reported unusual types of discharge from the Hood's 15 inch (381 mm) guns, suggesting that a shell could have detonated within the gun, causing an explosion within the gunhouse. It is possible that, under the stress of combat, the safety measures, introduced after the disasters at Jutland to prevent such an explosion reaching the magazines, could have failed. Modern Theories on the Sinking
The wreck of Hood was discovered in 3,000 metres of water in July 2001 by an expedition funded by UK-based Channel Four Television and ITN and led by shipwreck hunter David Mearns. In 2002, the site officially became a war grave by its designation the British government as a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act.
Hood's wreck lies on the seabed in pieces among two debris fields. The eastern field includes the tiny amount of the stern which survived the magazine explosion as well as the surviving section of the bow and some smaller remains such as the screws. The 4 inch (102 mm) fire director lies in the western debris field. The heavily armoured conning tower is located by itself a distance from the main wreck. The amidships section, the most massive part of the wreck to survive the explosions, lies south of the eastern debris field in a large impact crater. The starboard side of the amidships section is missing down to the inner wall of the fuel tanks; this has been interpreted as indicating the path of the explosion through the starboard fuel tanks. It is further supposed that the small debris fields are the fragments from the after hull where the magazines and turrets were located, since that section of the hull was totally destroyed in the explosion. The fact that the bow section separated just forward of A turret provoked the suggestion that a secondary explosion might have occurred in this area; however, the forensic assessment by Jurens has dismissed this theory.
The forward section remains upright on the seabed, with the amidship section keel up. Of interest is the stern section which actually rises from the seabed at an angle. This position clearly shows the rudder locked into a port turn, confirming that orders had been given (just prior to the aft magazines detonating) to change the ship's heading and bring the aft turrets 'X' and 'Y' to bear on the German ships.

See also

Bradford, Ernle (1959). The Mighty Hood. Cleveland: World.  An overall history, including her peace-time career.
Coles, Alan; Briggs, Ted (1985). Flagship Hood: The Fate of Britain's Mightiest Warship. London: Robert Hale. ISBN 0-7090-2024-4.  Ted Briggs was one of the three survivors of Hood's loss.
Northcott, Maurice P. (1975). Hood: Design and Construction. London: Bivouac Books Ltd. ISBN 0-85680-009-0.  A shorter work giving technical details of her construction.
Roberts, John (1989). Anatomy of the Ship: The Battlecruiser Hood. London: Conway Maritime. ISBN 0851772501.  A lengthy work giving great detail on her construction.
Taylor, Bruce (2005). The Battlecruiser HMS Hood: An Illustrated Biography, 1916-1941. London: Chatham.  The complete history of her career, functioning and people based on in-depth research from original sources.
Kemp, Paul J. (1991). Bismarck and Hood: Great Naval Adversaries. London: Arms and Armour Press.  Includes pictures of the Hood, and description of the Battle off Iceland.
Lt Cdr. Timothy J. Cain (1959). HMS Electra. London: Frederick Muller, LTD.. ISBN 0-86007-330-0.  Includes accounts of the survivor rescue effort.
Breyer, Siegfried (1973). Battleships and Battlecruisers 1905-1970. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company.  (originally published in German as Schlachtschiffe und Schlachtkreuzer 1905-1970, J.F. Lehmanns, Verlag, Munchen, 1970). Contains various line drawings of the ship as designed, as built, in her final (as sunk) configuration, and the proposed 1941 refit.
Mearns, David; White, Rob (2001). Hood and Bismarck: The Deep Sea Discovery of an Epic Battle. London: Channel 4.  Describes the expedition to find the wreck of the Hood, as well as its current state.
Steve Wiper, Warship Pictorial #20: H.M.S. Hood (Classic Warships Publishing, Tucson, Arizona, 2003), Contains pictures of the Hood during construction, including pictures of the launching.
Antonio Bonomi, Stretto di Danimarca, 24 maggio 1941, printed on "Storia Militare" magazine, December 2005.
Norman Friedman, Battleship Design and Development 1905-1945, Conway Maritime Press 1978; ISBN 0-85177-135-1.
VE Tarrant, King George V Class Battleships, Arms and Armour Press, 1991. ISBN 1-85409-524-2.

Tuesday, August 28, 2007

Elmer's Pet Rabbit
Elmer's Pet Rabbit is a 1940 Merrie Melodies cartoon starring Bugs Bunny and Elmer Fudd. The short was released on January 4, 1941. It is the first cartoon in which Bugs is given his name (on a title card). It was directed by the legendary Chuck Jones, written by Rich Hogan, animated by Rudy Larriva, and the music was directed by Carl Stalling. It was produced by Leon Schlesinger and the film editor was SFX wizard Treg Brown.
In this cartoon, Elmer buys Bugs Bunny in a pet shop and Bugs Bunny pesters him. Elmer is voiced by Arthur Q. Bryan and Bugs by Mel Blanc.
The music in the cartoon includes a variation on "While Strolling Through the Park One Day" (Ed Haley), arranged by Carl Stalling, performed by Elmer and Bugs. Elmer, of course, has trouble with many of the words, due to his "rounded L and R" speech impediment.


Bugs Bunny wears yellow gloves, he has a deep voice, and he has no buck teeth. Though this cartoon was released after A Wild Hare in which Bugs' recognizable "Bronx/Brooklyn" voice characterization appears for the first time, Mel Blanc used the voice from Elmer's Candid Camera in this short.
This is the first cartoon Bugs quoted the famous Groucho line, "Of course you realize this means war!" (not counting Porky's Hare Hunt in which Happy Rabbit, the early Bugs, but not officialy developed, quoted it).
This was the second cartoon for Bugs and the 23rd cartoon that Chuck Jones directed.

Monday, August 27, 2007

Baghdad (Arabic: بغداد Baġdād) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. With a metropolitan area estimated at a population of 7,000,000, it is the largest city in Iraq.
Baghdad Tower (used to be known as Saddam Tower): before its partial destruction due to the USA bombing of the Ma'amoon Telecommunication Center next to it, the tower used to be the highest point in the city and from where all Baghdad can be seen. The construction of the tower marks a period of the post-Gulf-war of 1991 reconstruction efforts.
The Two Level Bridge in Jadriyah (Jisr Abul Tabqain (the Iraqi common name of it)): Though the planing for this bridge was put long time ago and even before Saddam's regime take over (reference), the bridge was never built back then. As part of the reconstruction efforts to make Baghdad even better than before 1991 war and the USA air force destructive attacks, the long planned bridge was executed. It connects Al-Doura area (which is very large) with a direct path to the rest of the Baghdad and complements the 14th of July Bridge. The structure of the bridge is rather bulky and not much engineering had been put to it, but it functions for its purpose.
Al-Zawra'a Park in Al-Mansour Area and almost in a central location of Baghdad.
Al-Shaheed Monument: The monument to the Iraqi soldiers killed in the Iran-Iraq war, located on the east bank of the Tigris near Sadr City.
In Baghdad is a wide road built in Saddam's time as a parade route, and across it is the Hands of Victory, which is a pair of enormous crossed swords cast from weapons of soldiers who died in the Iran-Iraq War under Saddam's command.
Adhamiyah: Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
Al-Kadhimya: Shiite majority.
Karrada: Shiite majority, Christian presence.
Al-Jadriya Area : Mixed area.
Al-Mansour: Mixed area.
Zayouna: Mixed neighborhood.
Dora: Mixed area, mostly Sunni. Former Christian presence (most have fled)
Sadr City: Almost exclusively Shiite.
Hurriya City: Shiite majority, Sunni presence.
Baghdad Al-Jadida(New Baghdad): Shiite majority, Christian presence.
Al-Sa'adoon area : Mixed area.
Bab Al-Moatham : Sunni majority, shiite presence.
Bab Al-Sharqi : Mixed area.
Al-Baya' : Shiite majority, Sunni presence.
Al-Saydiya : Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
Al-A'amiriya : Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
Al-Shu'ala: Almost exclusively Shiite.
Al-Ghazaliya: Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
Al-Za'franiya: Shiite majority, Sunni presence.
Hayy Ur: Almost exclusively Shiite.
Sha'ab City: Shiite majority, Sunni presence.
Hayy Al-Jami'a: Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
Al-Adel: Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
Al:Khadhraa: Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
Hayy Al-Jihad: Mixed area.
Hayy Al-A'amel: Shiite majority, Sunni presence.
Haifa Street
Al-Rashid Street -- the city's main street, stretching from North Gate to South Gate.
Hilla Road -- Runs from the South into Baghdad via Yarmouk (Baghdad)
Caliphs Street -- site of historical mosques and churches.
Sadoun Street -- stretching from Liberation Square to Masbah
Mohammed Al-Qassim highway near Adhamiyah
Abu Nuwas Street -- runs along the Tigris from the from Jumhouriya Bridge to the 14th July Suspended Bridge
Damascus Street -- goes from Damascus Square to the International Airport Road
Mutanabbi Street -- A street with numerous book-shops, named after the 10th century Iraqi poet Al-Mutanabbi
Rabia Street
Arbataash Tamuz (14th July) Street (Mosul Road)
Muthana al-Shaibani Street
Bor Said (Port Said) Street
Thawra Street
Falastin (Palestine) Street
'Ordon (Jordan) Street
Matar Baghdad Al-Dawli (Airport Road) ((Formerly known as Matar Saddam Al-Dawli))
Flag of Egypt Cairo, Egypt
Flag of Jordan Amman, Jordan
Reconstruction of Iraq
List of places in Iraq
Firdus Square
Baghdad City Hall
Baghdad Arabic
‎Baghdad Airport Road
‎Baghdad bridge stampede
Baghdad Security Plan
"Baghdad." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 13 November, 2006.
"Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey"PDF (242 KiB). By Gilbert Burnham, Riyadh Lafta, Shannon Doocy, and Les Roberts. The Lancet, October 11, 2006
Baghdad from
Hattstein, Markus; Peter Delius (2000). Islam Art and Architecture, 96. ISBN 3-8290-2558-0. 
Encyclopedia Iranica, Columbia University, p.413.
By Desert Ways to Baghdad, by Louisa Jebb (Mrs. Roland Wilkins), 1908 (1909 ed) (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDFPDF (11.3 MiB) format)
A Dweller in Mesopotamia, being the adventures of an official artist in the garden of Eden, by Donald Maxwell, 1921 (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDFPDF (7.53 MiB) format)
Map of Baghdad
Interactive map
Iraq - Urban Society
Envisioning Reconstruction In Iraq
Description of the original layout of Baghdad
Ethnic and sectarian map of Baghdad - Healingiraq
Baghdad Renaissance Plan
UAE Investors Keen On Taking Part In Baghdad Renaissance Project
Man With A Plan: Hisham Ashkouri
Renaissance Plan In The News
Kabul, City of Light Development
Kabul - City of Light, 9 Billion dollar modern urban development project
Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center
Song - Birds Over Baghdad
Baghdad Treasure
Baghdad Burning Riverbend
Electronic Iraq
Maps and aerial photos for 33°19′30″N 44°25′19″E / 33.325, 44.422Coordinates: 33°19′30″N 44°25′19″E / 33.325, 44.422

  • Mapping from Multimap or GlobalGuide or Google Maps
    Aerial image from TerraServer
    Satellite image from WikiMapia
    Mapping from OpenStreetMap

Sunday, August 26, 2007

Prince Lincoln Thompson, known as Sax, was a Jamaican singer, musician and songwriter with the reggae band the Royal Rasses, and a member of the Rastafari movement. He was born June 18, 1949 in the west side of Kingston, Jamaica and died of cancer in London on January 23, 1999, five months before his 50th birthday. He was noted for his high falsetto singing voice, very different from his spoken voice.

Prince Lincoln ThompsonPrince Lincoln Thompson Record deal
He released a final album, 21st century in 1997 after someone from the United States heard the music in Thompson's shop and agreed to become a sponsor. This final album was also recorded in London.


Humanity 1974
Experience 1979 (The lyrics from Walk in Jah light and Thanksgiving have been used to explain the doctrine of physical immortality at Rastafari movement.
Harder na Rass 1979
Natural Wild 1980
Ride with the Rasses 1982
Rootsman Blues 1983 also titled Unite The World
21st century 1997

Saturday, August 25, 2007

This article is about Ufa, a city in Russia. For meanings of the abbreviation, see UFA.
Ufa (Russian: Уфа́; Bashkir: Өфө; Tatar: Ufa, Öfä; Chuvash: Ěпхӳ) is the capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. Population: 1,036,026 (2005 est.); 1,042,437 (2002 Census). Geographical location: 54°45′N 55°58′ECoordinates: 54°45′N 55°58′E.
Ufa is one of the industrial centres in the Western Urals area, and is situated at the confluence of the Belaya and the Ufa Rivers. Industries include electrical and mining equipment, oil refining, petrochemicals, synthetic rubber, and processed foods. The Ufa Airport connects the city to several towns in Russia, as well as to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Germany, Turkey and Uzbekistan. There is also the smaller Ufa Maximovka Airport northeast of the city.
The city began as a fortress built on the orders of Ivan IV in 1574, and originally bore the name of the hill it stood on, Tura-Tau. The city began to be called Ufa, meaning "small" in Turkic, by locals and the name stuck. In 1802, Ufa became the principal city of Bashkiria.
Educational institutions include Bashkir State University, Bashkir State Teachers Training University, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa Oil University, Ufa Architectural University, Ufa Agricultural University, and others.
Famous natives of Ufa include Vladimir Spivakov, rebel Salavat Yulayev, the Muslim Bolshevik Mirsaid Sultangaliev, the painter Mikhail Nesterov, dancer Rudolf Nureyev, NHL ice hockey player Andrei Zyuzin, rock singers Yuri Shevchuk with his band DDT (band), and Zemfira.
Photograph of Ufa taken by Prokudin-Gorskii between 1905 and 1915. Compare modern view of Ufa.
A mosque in Ufa.
UfaUfa A monument remembering Salawat Yulayev in Ufa

Friday, August 24, 2007

Knowledge building
Knowledge Building theory was created and developed by Carl Bereiter and Marlene Scardamalia in order to describe what a community of learners need to accomplish in order to create knowledge. The theory address the need to educate people for the knowledge age society, in which knowledge and innovation are pervasive (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2003).

Knowledge building Principles of knowledge building

Educational psychology
Knowledge Forum
Fle3 - Future Learning Environent - web-based learning environment with Knowledge Building tool.
Constructivism (learning theory)
Knowledge building communities
Carl Bereiter
Marlene Scardamalia

Thursday, August 23, 2007

Asian American jazz
Asian American jazz is a musical movement in the United States begun in the 20th century by Asian American jazz musicians.
Although Asian Americans had been performing jazz music almost since that music's inception, it was not until the late 20th century when a distinctly Asian American brand of jazz began to develop. In the 1970s and early 1980s, West Coast musicians such as Gerald Oshita, Glenn Horiuchi, Anthony Brown, Jon Jang, Francis Wong, Mark Izu, and Russel Baba, as well as New Yorkers like Fred Ho and Jason Kao Hwang, began to create a hybrid music that was reflective of their ancestral heritages and experiences as Asian Americans, but which was at the same time also rooted in jazz, a music of African American origin. Most of the first musicians associated with the movement were of Japanese or Chinese ancestry, though more recently musicians of Philippine, Vietnamese, Indian, and Iranian descent have also become active.
Often, Asian American jazz combines standard jazz instruments with Asian instruments (such as taiko, shamisen, erhu, suona, or kulintang), which are often performed by musicians from Asia. Also, they may play jazz instruments in a manner imitative of Asian instruments. Many Asian American jazz ensembles also include musicians who are not of Asian descent.
Of particular significance to the development and promotion of the movement are the San Francisco Asian American Jazz Festival (1981-2006) and the Asian Improv record label, as well as the Chicago Asian American Jazz Festival begun by Chicago musician Tatsu Aoki.
One of the first and most prominent Asian American jazz bands is the Japanese American fusion jazz band Hiroshima, which was formed in 1974. In 2000, Anthony Brown's Asian American Orchestra received a GRAMMY nomination for Best Large Jazz Ensemble Performance for their recording of Ellington-Strayhorn's Far East Suite.

Wednesday, August 22, 2007

Organizational relationships
Harvard is consistently ranked among the top business schools in the world. It is currently ranked #4 by BusinessWeek magazine

Harvard Business School offers a two-year full time MBA program, which consists of one year of mandatory courses (Required Curriculum) and one year of unrestricted course selection (Elective Curriculum). Admission to the MBA program is one of the most selective graduate programs in the world

MBA Program
The top academic honor at Harvard Business School is the Baker Scholar designation (High Distinction), given to the top 5% of the graduating MBA class. In a typical year a Baker Scholar will have achieved "1s" in approximately 70 - 75% of their course credits. Students receiving honors (top 20%) in both their first and second years are awarded the MBA degree with Distinction.
The student who receives the highest grades in the first year of the program is awarded the Henry Ford II scholarship and is known as the Ford Scholar. For a typical student to attain this honor, s/he must achieve the highest available grade in each of the ten MBA classes during the first year of the program. Other academic distinctions include the Thomas M. and Edna E. Wolfe Award, given to recognise scholastic excellence (generally to the student with the highest grade in the class) and the Loeb prize given for the most outstanding performance in finance.
Until 2005, Harvard Business School also awarded the Siebel Scholarship to each of the top five students in the first year of the program (see However for reasons that were not publicised this was recently withdrawn.

Academic honors
The Harvard Business School (HBS) Business Plan Contest is jointly sponsored by HBS's Arthur Rock Center for Entrepreneurship, the HBS Entrepreneurship Club and the Social Enterprise Club. The contest consists of the "traditional," for profit, track and the "social enterprise" track for those plans with an explicitly social agenda. The winner of the traditional track contest wins the Dubilier Prize, including $10,000 in cash and $10,000 in in-kind (legal and accounting) services. The winner of the social enterprise track also receives the Peter M. Sacerdote Prize, including $10,000 in cash and $10,000 in in-kind services. Three runners-up from both tracks of the contest are also named, and each receive the Satchu-Burgstone Entrepreneurship Award, including $5,000 in cash and $5,000 in in-kind services. In certain cases, a "specialty plan" prize may be awarded to a plan that may simply require less capital — and be targeting a smaller market, if such a plan is not already among the winners. These winners also receive $5,000 in cash and $5,000 in in-kind services. The contest is now in its 11th year and has had a number of prominent companies among its winners, including Bang Networks in 2000.

HBS Business Plan Contest
Overview of Past Winners Business Plan Contest
Students can join one or more of the more than 75 clubs on campus. The clubs invite speakers to campus, organize trips, social events, and help forming bonds between students of similar interests. The Student Association is the main interface between the MBA student body and the faculty/administration. It is led by a four-person Executive Committee (2 co-presidents, CFO and COO). The decision power rests with the Senate, which is composed of one senator from each section (a total of 10), the Executive Committee, and various committees made up of section officers.

Student Life
The mission of Harvard Business School's Doctoral Programs is to develop outstanding scholars for careers in research and teaching at leading business schools and universities.
Flexibility in learning, independence in study, research with deep impact, notable faculty who are leaders in their fields, and the finest resources in academia—these qualities enable Harvard Business School to offer highly regarded doctoral programs.
To ensure a solid foundation in management, all students (without an MBA degree) are required to take at least five courses in the MBA curriculum. A deep knowledge of management practice—not only in general, but also specific to a student's area of specialization—is a critical component of business doctoral education. These courses provide a valuable source of research topics and institutional knowledge that will be important for future research and teaching success in business schools. At the same time, a broad knowledge of business ensures that students fully appreciate the interdependencies and complexity of management problems and may introduce them to the possibility of interdisciplinary research.
All students are admitted for full-time degree programs, beginning in September. Students, however, may begin the program in July, conducting research with an HBS faculty member. A minimum of two years in residence is required, and it is expected that students will complete their program in four to five years. Students typically spend two to two-and-a-half years on course work, and another two years on their dissertation.

Doctoral Programs
In addition to Master's and Doctoral degrees, the Harvard Business School (HBS) offers non-degree executive programs which confer alumni status to graduates:
Other Executive Education programs at HBS also award certificates to attendees, but do not confer alumni status (an exception is the Program for Leadership Development, which also confers HBS alumni status if 10 extra days of HBS executive education are completed).

the Owner/President Management Program (OPM), a part-time, multi-year program for self-employed entrepreneurs;
the Advanced Management Program (AMP), an eight-week intensive course for senior managers; and
the General Management Program (GMP), which combines campus and distance learning and is intended for middle managers. Executive Education
The Harvard Business School campus is located in Allston, across the Charles River from the main Harvard campus in Cambridge. Many of the buildings have red-brick exteriors, as do many buildings in Harvard Yard. HBS maintains a number of facilities, including a sports center and The Class of 1959 Chapel, that are dedicated for the exclusive use of its community. A series of underground tunnels connects the basements of nearly every building on the campus, with the noticeable exception of the more recent student housing facilities that are SFP (Soldier Field Park) and OWA (One Western Avenue) buildings. Spangler Hall is widely considered HBS' main building with student lounges, meeting rooms, administrative offices and dining facilities. Most classrooms are located in Aldrich and Hawes, most of which are 100-student "amphi-theatre" rooms with approximately five rows in a half circle. This design facilitates the teaching of the case method. Baker Library was reopened in 2005 after several years of renovation. The new building features student study spaces as well as faculty offices. The fitness center is located in Shad Hall, across from Morgan Hall, which houses the majority of the faculty. Shad Hall is also the location of the Computer Lab for Experimental Research (CLER) where many business research studies are conducted. Closest to Charles River are the Executive Education halls as well as student dormitories.

The school's faculty are divided into ten academic units: Accounting and Management; Business, Government and the International Economy; Entrepreneurial Management; Finance; General Management; Marketing; Negotiation, Organizations & Markets; Organizational Behavior; Strategy; and Technology and Operations Management.

Academic Units
To be considered for admission, a candidate must have successfully completed the following: A degree program at an accredited U.S. four-year undergraduate college/university or its equivalent; and the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exam, The application for the MBA class entering consists of responses to the application essay questions, a resume, recommendations, academic history, GMAT scores, TOEFL or IELTS score, if applicable, and nonrefundable U.S. $235 application fee.

This section has been tagged since June 2006.
See also: List of Harvard University people

Harvard Business School Alumni (MBA and executive programs)

List of business schools in the United States
business school

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Billboard is a weekly American magazine devoted to the music industry. It maintains several internationally recognized music charts that track the most popular songs and albums in various categories on a weekly basis. Its most famous chart, the "Billboard Hot 100", ranks the top 100 songs regardless of genre and is frequently used as the standard measure for ranking songs in the United States. The "Billboard 200" survey is the corresponding chart for album sales.

Billboard magazine History

Main article: Billboard chartsBillboard magazine Radio countdown programs
Billboard magazine covers every aspect of the music business, from radio and television to CD, DVD and video cassette sales and internet music downloads. It features news stories and opinion articles. For the most part, Billboard is intended for music professionals, such as record label executives and DJs. It is generally not intended for the general public, although it can occasionally be found at bookstores. However, despite their extensive coverage of the entertainment business, they remain best known for their charts. The editorial coverage and broader strategy is guided by its editorial director, Scott A. McKenzie
Online Video: carries a 60-second news video about the world of music hosted by Danielle Flora called "Billboard In Sixty". which is artist interviews, performances and out-takes. Artists have included Ace Young, Wes Hutchinson, and Ryan Starr.

Corporate ownership

Durkee, Rob. "American Top 40: The Countdown of the Century." Schriner Books, New York City, 1999.
Battistini, Pete, "American Top 40 with Casey Kasem The 1970s.", January 31, 2005. ISBN 1-4184-1070-5.

Sunday, August 19, 2007

Rzeczpospolita (pronounced: [ʐεtʂpɔsˈpɔλita] ) is a Polish word for "republic" or "commonwealth", a calque translation of the Latin expression res publica (literally: "public affair").
The word rzeczpospolita has been used in Poland since at least 16th century, originally a generic term to denote any state with a republican or similar form of government. The famous quote by Crown Chancellor Jan Zamoyski about the importance of education is an example of this usage:
Takie będą rzeczypospolite, jakie ich młodzieży chowanie. Republics will be such as the upbringing of their youth.
Today, however, the word is used solely in reference to the Polish State (seldom also to the ancient republics such as the Roman Republic and Republic of Venice). Any other republic is referred to as republika in modern Polish.
The official name of the present-day Polish State is Rzeczpospolita Polska, which is usually translated into English as "Republic of Poland". However, such translation, when talking about the 16–18th century Poland, may be confusing since in those times the Rzeczpospolita was a monarchy. For that period, Rzeczpospolita is rendered rather as "Commonwealth" (which is another English version of the Latin res publica), as in "Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth".
The word Rzeczpospolita is also used as a name for three periods in Poland's history:
Leaders of the currently ruling Law and Justice party have coined the term Fourth Rzeczpospolita – a new Poland they vowed to create as a replacement for the current, allegedly too corrupt, Third Rzeczpospolita.
Other expressions and names that employ the term rzeczpospolita include:
Rzeczpospolita is sometimes abbreviated to Rzplita. RP is a common abbreviation for Rzeczpospolita Polska (Republic of Poland).
The peoples that were once under Polish domination have borrowed the word Rzeczpospolita from the Polish language. Lithuanian Žečpospolita, Belarusian Рэч Паспалітая (Rech Paspalitaya) and Ukrainian Річ Посполита (Rich Pospolyta) are used only to refer to the pre-partition Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

First Rzeczpospolita – the period when Poland was ruled by the nobility (szlachta) who elected the king and the parliament (Sejm); from the Nihil novi act in 1505 until the third and final partition of Poland-Lithuania in 1795;
Second Rzeczpospolita – name usually applied to the entire interwar period, from Poland's independence in 1918 until the Invasion of Poland and German-Soviet occupation in 1939, although the renascent Polish State was officially called Republika Polska until the name Rzeczpospolita Polska was introduced by the constitution of 1921 whose first article read: Państwo Polskie jest Rzecząpospolitą ("The Polish State is a Rzeczpospolita");
Third Rzeczpospolita – following the fall of the communist regime in 1989.
Rzeczpospolita szlacheckaNobles' Commonwealth / Republic, another name for the First Rzeczpospolita;
Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów – Commonwealth of the Two Nations or Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (15691795);
Rzeczpospolita Babińska – a 16th-century parody of the state, established in the village of Babin, where nobles were given "offices" according to their faults instead of merits;
Rzeczpospolita Krakowska – Republic of Kraków or Free City of Kraków (18151846);
Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa or PRLPeople's Republic of Poland, name colloquially applied to the whole period of communist rule in Poland, i.e. 19441989, although officially used only between 1952 and 1989.

Saturday, August 18, 2007

Alan Abel
This article is about Alan Abel the prankster and not about Alan Abel of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
Alan Abel (b. 1930) is an American prankster, hoaxter, writer, mockumentary filmmaker, and jazz percussionist famous for several hoaxes that became media circuses.

Education and early career
Following the Watergate scandal, Abel hired an actor to pose as Deep Throat for a press conference in New York City before 150 reporters. Literary agent Scott Meredith, offered $100,000 to buy the rights to his story. At the news conference the Deep Throat impostor quarreled with his purported wife, then fainted and was whisked away in a waiting ambulance.
Abel wrote, produced, and directed two mockumentariesIs There Sex after Death? (1971) and The Faking of the President (1976).
In 1979 Abel staged his own death from a heart attack near the Sundance Ski Lodge. A fake funeral director collected his belongings and a woman posing as his widow notified the New York Times. The Times published an obituary January 2, 1980 (a rare example of a premature obituary). On January 3, 1980, Abel held a news conference to announce that the "reports of my demise have been grossly exaggerated".
Omar's School for Beggars was a fictional school for professional panhandlers. As Omar, Abel was invited to numerous television talk shows including the Tomorrow Show hosted by Tom Snyder, Morton Downey, Jr., Sally Jessy Raphael, Mike Douglas and Sonya Friedman, who was especially upset because Omar ate his lunch on camera. The hoax was a satirical commentary on the rise of unemployment and homelessness in America. Omar's TV appearances spanned the period from 1975 to 1988, even though he had been exposed several times.

During the early 1990s, Abel kept a full-size railroad caboose in his front yard in Westport, Connecticut, as a parody of the redneck stereotype of junked cars in the front yard.
In 1997 Abel launched a new venture, CGS Productions, to promote gift-wrapped pint jars of Jenny McCarthy's urine. (A parody of McCarthy's role in a shoe commercial where she appeared sitting on a toilet.) The name of the communications director for CGS Productions was Stoidi Puekaw – "Wake up idiots" backwards.
Abel once ran for Congress on a platform that included paying congressmen based on commission; selling ambassadorships to the highest bidder; installing a lie detector in the White House and truth serum in the Senate drinking fountain; requiring all doctors to publish their medical school grade point average in the telephone book after their names and removing Wednesday to establish a 4-day workweek.