Thursday, January 17, 2008

NYS College of Veterinary Medicine
Cornell University Coat of Arms
The New York State College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was founded in 1894 as the first contract college in New York. Before the creation of the college, instruction in veterinary medicine had been part of Cornell's curriculum since the university's founding. In 1868, when Cornell opened, there was little formal study in the country devoted to the veterinary medicine and Cornell would become a pioneer in the field.

Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine History
Cornell's College of Veterinary Medicine is only one of three veterinary colleges and schools in the Northeastern United States, and one of 28 such colleges and schools in the United States. The college is noted for the James A. Baker Institute for Animal Health, a world-renowned center for canine and equine research, a feline health center, as well as for important work in animal vaccine development, animal reproductive research, and identifying common factors that affect the health of both animals and humans. Cornell is consistently ranked the best veterinary college in the nation.
The College of Veterinary Medicine offers programs in veterinary medicine that lead to the degrees of D.V.M., and M.S. and Ph.D. through the Cornell Graduate School. Cornell's College of Veterinary Medicine also consistently ranks amongst the best in its field, being regularly selected as the best college for veterinary medicine by US News and World Report's America's Best Colleges® edition.

Wednesday, January 16, 2008

Scott Thornton (ice hockey player)
Scott Thornton (born January 9, 1971 in London, Ontario, Canada) is a professional ice hockey winger playing for the Los Angeles Kings.
Thornton was drafted in the first round (3rd overall) by the Toronto Maple Leafs in the 1989 NHL Entry Draft. He played thirty-three games for the team his rookie season, accumulating one goal and three assists. He also played left wing for the Dallas Stars and San Jose Sharks. He was signed by San Jose as a free agent on July 1, 2000. In his first season with San Jose, he had a career year, scoring twenty goals playing alongside gritty center Mike Ricci. He signed a two-year contract extension in the 03-04 season. While no longer playing on the top lines, Thornton is a quality third line forward who provides great energy. He and former Sharks teammate Joe Thornton are first cousins.

Scott Thornton (ice hockey player) Contract
In 2004, he signed a two-year, US$3.42 million dollar contract. This contract expired in June 2006, and Thornton became an unrestricted free agent when the Sharks declined to pick up the one-year team option in his contract. On July 1, 2006, he signed a 2 year, $3 million contract with the Los Angeles Kings.

Tuesday, January 15, 2008

The True Cross is the name for physical remnants traditionally believed to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.
According to a number of early writers, the Empress Helena, (c.250–c.330 AD), mother of Constantine, the first Christian Emperor of Rome, at a date after 312 AD when Christianity was legalised throughout the Empire, travelled to the Holy Land, founding churches and establishing relief agencies for the poor. It was at this time that she discovered the hiding place of three crosses used at the crucifixion of Jesus and the two thieves that were executed with him. By a miracle it was revealed which of the three was the True Cross.
Many churches possess fragmentary remains which are by tradition alleged to be those of the True Cross. Their authenticity is not accepted universally by those of the Christian faith and the accuracy of the reports surrounding the discovery of the True Cross is questioned by many Christians. The acceptance and belief of that part of the tradition that pertains to the Early Christian Church is generally restricted to the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. The Medieval legend of its provenance in the Tree of Life is given less credence.
For detailed information regarding the Crucifixion itself, see Crucifixion of Jesus.

Provenance of the True Cross in "The Golden Legend"
In the late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance, there was a wide general acceptance of the origin of the True Cross and its history preceding the Crucifixion, as recorded by Voragine. This general acceptance is confirmed by the numerous artworks that depict this subject, culminating in one of the most famous fresco cycles of the Renaissance, the Legend of the True Cross by Piero della Francesca, painted on the walls of the chancel of the Church of San Francesco in Arezzo between 1452 and 1466, in which he reproduces faithfully the traditional episodes of the story as recorded in The Golden Legend.
It is worth noting that The Golden Legend and many of its sources had neither acceptance nor parallel in the Greek- or Syriac-speaking worlds. The above pre-Crucifixion history, therefore, is not to be found in Eastern Christianity.

Acceptance of this tradition

Finding the True Cross
Eusebius describes in his Life of Constantine how the site of the Holy Sepulchre, originally a site of veneration for the Christian community in Jerusalem, had been covered with earth and a temple of Venus had been built on top — although Eusebius does not say as much, this would probably have been done as part of Hadrian's reconstruction of Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina in 135, following the destruction during the Jewish Revolt of 70 and Bar Kokhba's revolt of 132135. Following his conversion to Christianity, Emperor Constantine ordered in about 325326 that the site be uncovered and instructed Saint Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem, to build a church on the site. In this Life, Eusebius does not mention the finding of the True Cross.

According to Eusebius
Socrates Scholasticus (born c. 380), in his Ecclesiastical History, gives a full description of the discovery [6] that was repeated later by Sozomen and by Theodoret. In it he describes how Saint Helena, Constantine's aged mother, had the temple destroyed and the Sepulchre uncovered, whereupon three crosses and the titulus from Jesus's crucifixion were uncovered as well. In Socrates's version of the story, Macarius had the three crosses placed in turn on a deathly ill woman. This woman recovered at the touch of the third cross, which was taken as a sign that this was the cross of Christ, the new Christian symbol. Socrates also reports that, having also found the nails with which Christ had been fastened to the cross, Helena sent these to Constantinople, where they were incorporated into the emperor's helmet and the bridle of his horse.

According to Socrates Scolasticus
Sozomen (died c. 450), in his Ecclesiastical History [7], gives essentially the same version as Socrates. He also adds that it was said (by whom he does not say) that the location of the Sepulchre was "disclosed by a Hebrew who dwelt in the East, and who derived his information from some documents which had come to him by paternal inheritance" (although Sozomen himself disputes this account) and that a dead person was also revived by the touch of the Cross. Later popular versions of this story state that the Jew who assisted Helena was named Jude or Judas, but later converted to Christianity and took the name Kyriakos.

According to Sozomen
Theodoret (died c. 457) in his Ecclesiastical History Chapter xvii gives what had become the standard version of the finding of the True Cross:
When the empress beheld the place where the Saviour suffered, she immediately ordered the idolatrous temple, which had been there erected, to be destroyed, and the very earth on which it stood to be removed. When the tomb, which had been so long concealed, was discovered, three crosses were seen buried near the Lord's sepulchre. All held it as certain that one of these crosses was that of our Lord Jesus Christ, and that the other two were those of the thieves who were crucified with Him. Yet they could not discern to which of the three the Body of the Lord had been brought nigh, and which had received the outpouring of His precious Blood. But the wise and holy Macarius, the president of the city, resolved this question in the following manner. He caused a lady of rank, who had been long suffering from disease, to be touched by each of the crosses, with earnest prayer, and thus discerned the virtue residing in that of the Saviour. For the instant this cross was brought near the lady, it expelled the sore disease, and made her whole.
With the Cross were also found the Holy Nails, which Helena took with her back to Constantinople. According to Theodoret, "She had part of the cross of our Saviour conveyed to the palace. The rest was enclosed in a covering of silver, and committed to the care of the bishop of the city, whom she exhorted to preserve it carefully, in order that it might be transmitted uninjured to posterity."
Another popular ancient version from the Syriac tradition replaced Helena with a fictitious first-century empress named Protonike.
Historians consider these versions to be apocryphal in varying degrees. It is certain, however, that the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre was completed by 335 and that alleged relics of the Cross were being venerated there by the 340s, as they are mentioned in the Catecheses of Cyril of Jerusalem (see below).

According to Theodoret
The silver reliquary that was left at the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre in care of the bishop of Jerusalem was exhibited periodically to the faithful. In the 380s a nun named Egeria who was travelling on pilgrimage described the veneration of the True Cross at Jerusalem in a long letter, the Itinerario Egeriae that she sent back to her community of women:
Then a chair is placed for the bishop in Golgotha behind the [liturgical] Cross, which is now standing; the bishop duly takes his seat in the chair, and a table covered with a linen cloth is placed before him; the deacons stand round the table, and a silver-gilt casket is brought in which is the holy wood of the Cross. The casket is opened and [the wood] is taken out, and both the wood of the Cross and the title are placed upon the table. Now, when it has been put upon the table, the bishop, as he sits, holds the extremities of the sacred wood firmly in his hands, while the deacons who stand around guard it. It is guarded thus because the custom is that the people, both faithful and catechumens, come one by one and, bowing down at the table, kiss the sacred wood and pass through. And because, I know not when, some one is said to have bitten off and stolen a portion of the sacred wood, it is thus guarded by the deacons who stand around, lest any one approaching should venture to do so again. And as all the people pass by one by one, all bowing themselves, they touch the Cross and the title, first with their foreheads and then with their eyes; then they kiss the Cross and pass through, but none lays his hand upon it to touch it. When they have kissed the Cross and have passed through, a deacon stands holding the ring of Solomon and the horn from which the kings were anointed; they kiss the horn also and gaze at the ring…
Before long, but perhaps not until after the visit of Egeria, it was possible also to venerate the crown of thorns, the pillar at which Christ was scourged, and the lance that pierced his side.
In 614 the Sassanid Emperor Khosrau II ("Chosroes") removed the part of the cross as a trophy, when he captured Jerusalem. Thirteen years later, in 628, the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeated Khosrau and retook the relic, which he at first placed in Constantinople, and later took back to Jerusalem in March 21, 630. [8] Around 1009, Christians in Jerusalem hid the part of the cross and it remained hidden until it was rediscovered during the First Crusade, on August 5, 1099, by Arnulf Malecorne, the first Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, conveniently at a moment when a morale boost was needed. The relic that Arnulf discovered was a small fragment of wood embedded in a golden cross, and it became the most sacred relic of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, with none of the controversy that had followed their discovery of the Holy Lance in Antioch. It was housed in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre under the protection of the Latin Patriarch, who marched with it ahead of the army before every battle. It was captured by Saladin during the Battle of Hattin in 1187 and subsequently disappeared.
Other fragments of the Cross were further broken up, and the pieces were widely distributed; in 348, in one of his Catecheses, Cyril of Jerusalem remarked that the "whole earth is full of the relics of the Cross of Christ," . However, although it is possible, the poem need not be referring to this specific relic or have this incident as the reason for its composition.

True Cross Dispersal of relics of the True Cross
St John Chrysostom wrote homilies on the three crosses:
Kings removing their diadems take up the cross, the symbol of their Saviour's death; on the purple, the cross; in their prayers, the cross; on their armour, the cross; on the holy table, the cross; throughout the universe, the cross. The cross shines brighter than the sun.
The Roman Catholic Church, many Protestant denominations (most notably those with Anglican origins), and the Eastern Orthodox churches celebrate the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross on September 14, the anniversary of the dedication of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. In later centuries, these celebrations also included commemoration of the rescue of the True Cross from the Persians in 628. In the Gallician usage, beginning about the seventh century, the Feast of the Cross was celebrated on May 3. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, when the Gallician and Roman practices were combined, the September date, for which the Vatican adopted the official name "Triumph of the Cross" in 1963, was used to commemorate the rescue from the Persians and the May date was kept as the "Invention of the True Cross" to commemorate the finding. The September date is often referred to in the West as Holy Cross Day; the May date was dropped from the liturgical calendar by the Second Vatican Council in 1970. (See also Roodmas.) The Orthodox still commemorate both events on September 14, one of the twelve Great Feasts of the liturgical year, and the 'Procession of the Venerable Wood of the Cross' on 1 August, the day on which the relics of the True Cross would be carried through the streets of Constantinople to bless the city [10].
In addition to celebrations on fixed days, there are certain days of the variable cycle when the Cross is celebrated. The Roman Catholic Church has a formal 'Adoration of the Cross' (the term is inaccurate, but sanctioned by long use[11]) during the services for Good Friday, while the Orthodox celebrate an additional Veneration of the Cross on the third Sunday of Great Lent. In Greek Orthodox churches everywhere, a replica of the cross is brought out in procession on Holy Thursday for the people to venerate.

Veneration of the Cross

Battle of Hattin
Christian cross
Île de la Cité
Stavelot Triptych
Titulus Crucis
Santa Croce in Gerusalemme Bibliography

Monday, January 14, 2008

Radio Free Europe Early history
In 1976, RFE was merged with a very similar Congress funded anti-communist organization called Radio Liberty (RL, founded in 1951 by the American Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia) and the group name was officially changed to Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL).
Soviet authorities regularly attempted to jam RFE/RL broadcasts and these efforts did not end until 1988. From 1985 until 1993 the organization also ran Radio Free Afghanistan.
The collapse of the Soviet Union reduced the budget for RFE/RL: its headquarters were moved to Prague in 1995 and European operations were curtailed (save those of the South Slavic Department). However operations were expanded elsewhere; in 1998 Radio Free Iraq and a Persian service (Radio Farda) were started, in 1999 a service was started in Kosovo, and in 2002 Radio Free Afghanistan was restarted and the Persian Service was incorporated into Radio Farda. In addition, in 1994 the mission of the Board for International Broadcasting was transferred to the Broadcasting Board of Governors.
In most cases, listening to RFE in eastern European Communist countries was illegal, and had to be done in secret. Often the governments of these states would electronically jam the transmissions. Also, more 'active' measures were taken to combat the transmissions. In 1965-71 an agent of the Służba Bezpieczeństwa successfully infiltrated the station with an operative (Capt. Andrzej Czechowicz).

After merger with Radio Liberty
Communism on the Spot
A Publice Service of
Radio Liberty
the most powerful free voice broadcasting exclusively to Soviet Union
30 EAST 42nd STREET, NEW YORK 17 N.Y. TN-75200
No. 221
COMMUNISM ON THE SPOT. This is _____ speaking for RADIO LIBERTY. Failures in industrial planning continue to be a serious bottleneck to Soviet progress. On the basis of articles in the Soviet press, faulty planning is cutting expected growth to a minimum. Ironically, this state of affairs is not reflected in Soviet Statistics. For example, a 1962 statistical report claimed that the volume of industrial output exceeded by nearly 10% that for a corresponding period last year. How can this discrepancy between statistical claims and the actual situation be explained? Very simply. As in other cases, figures which are of no significance to the national economy are quoted to prove that industrial progress is proceeding as planned. This has been a public service presentation of this station and of RADIO LIBERTY, in its 10th Anniversary Year, the most powerful free voice broadcasting exclusively to the Soviet Union.
Radio Liberty, the Free Voice of the Peoples of the Soviet Union, broadcasts in 17 languages of the USSR from transmitters in West Germany, Spain and Formosa.

RFE people

Cold War
Voice of America
Radio Free Asia
Ogulsapar Muradova

Sunday, January 13, 2008

Waltham, New Zealand
Waltham is an inner suburb of Christchurch, New Zealand, located two kilometres southeast of the city centre. State Highway 73, part of Christchurch's ring road system, runs through the suburb, as does the Heathcote River and the Christchurch - Lyttelton rail corridor. The Christchurch gasworks was located at the inner boundary of Waltham until its closure ca. 1980.
Waltham was originally part of the Sydenham borough and was incorporated into the City of Christchurch in 1903. It is named for the village of Waltham, Lincolnshire in England.
The suburb (as defined by the Statistics New Zealand meshblock) is about 1 km², much of which is occupied by light and heavy industry - the residential population is less than 1000. The suburb ranks below average in income and high in unemployment. Amenities include Jade Stadium, Christchurch's international rugby and cricket venue, and Waltham Lido pool.

Saturday, January 12, 2008

The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consists of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. The Bronze Age forms part of the three-age system for prehistoric societies. In this system, it follows the Neolithic in some areas of the world. In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Neolithic is directly followed by the Iron Age.

The Bronze Age in the Near East is divided into three main periods (the dates are very approximate):
Each main period can be divided into shorter subcategories such as EB I, EB II, MB IIa etc.
Metallurgy developed first in Anatolia, modern Turkey. The mountains in the Anatolian highland possessed rich deposits of copper and tin. Copper was also mined in Cyprus, the Negev desert, Iran and around the Persian Gulf. Copper was usually mixed with arsenic, yet the growing demand for tin resulted in the establishment of distant trade routes in and out of Anatolia. The precious copper was also imported by sea routes to the great kingdoms of Mesopotamia.
The Early Bronze Age saw the rise of urbanization into organized city states and the invention of writing (the Uruk period in the fifth millennium BCE). In the Middle Bronze Age movements of people partially changed the political pattern of the Near East (Amorites, Hittites, Hurrians, Hyksos and possibly the Israelites). The Late Bronze Age is characterized by competing powerful kingdoms and their vassal states (Assyria, Babylonia, Hittites, Mitanni). Extensive contacts were made with the Aegean civilization (Ahhiyawa, Alashiya) in which the copper trade played an important role. This period ended in a widespread collapse which affected much of the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East.
Iron began to be worked already in Late Bronze Age Anatolia. The transition into the Iron Age c.1200 BCE was more of a political change in the Near East rather than of new developments in metalworking.

EBA - Early Bronze Age (c.3500-2000 BCE)
MBA - Middle Bronze Age (c.2000-1600 BCE)
LBA - Late Bronze Age (c.1600-1100 BCE) Ancient Near East

Main article: Indus Valley civilization Indian Bronze Age

East Asia

Main article: Erlitou China
In Ban Chiang, Thailand, (Southeast Asia) bronze artifacts have been discovered dating to 2100 BCE [2].
In Nyaunggan, Burma bronze tools have been excavated along with ceramics and stone artefacts . Dating is still currently broad . (3500 BCE - 500 BCE) [3]

Middle Bronze Age Southeast Asia

Main article: Mumun Pottery Period Korean peninsula
The Aegean Bronze Age civilizations established a far-ranging trade network. This network imported tin and charcoal to Cyprus, where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze. Bronze objects were then exported far and wide, and supported the trade. Isotopic analysis of the tin in some Mediterranean bronze objects indicates it came from as far away as Great Britain. believe that ancient empires were prone to misvalue staples in favor of luxuries, and thereby perish by famines created by uneconomic trading.

Main article: Bronze Age collapse Europe
In Central Europe, the early Bronze Age Unetice culture (1800-1600 BCE) includes numerous smaller groups like the Straubingen, Adlerberg and Hatvan cultures. Some very rich burials, such as the one located at Leubingen with grave gifts crafted from gold, point to an increase of social stratification already present in the Unetice culture. All in all, cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size. The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age (1600-1200 BCE) Tumulus culture, which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli (barrows). In the eastern Hungarian Körös tributaries, the early Bronze Age first saw the introduction of the Mako culture, followed by the Ottomany and Gyulavarsand cultures.
The late Bronze Age urnfield culture, (1300 BCE-700 BCE) is characterized by cremation burials. It includes the Lusatian culture in eastern Germany and Poland (1300-500 BCE) that continues into the Iron Age. The Central European Bronze Age is followed by the Iron Age Hallstatt culture (700-450 BCE).
Important sites include:

Biskupin (Poland)
Nebra (Germany)
Vráble (Slovakia)
Zug-Sumpf, Zug, Switzerland Central Europe

Main article: Nordic Bronze AgeMiddle Bronze Age Northern Europe
Some scholars date some arsenical bronze artefacts of the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus as far back as the mid 4th millennium BCE.


Main article: Bronze Age Britain Great Britain

Ferriby Boats
Langdon Bay hoard - see also Dover Museum
Divers unearth Bronze Age hoard off the coast of Devon
Moor Sands finds, including a remarkably well preserved and complete sword which has parallels with material from the Seine basin of northern France Bronze Age boats
The Bronze Age in Ireland commenced in the centuries around 2000 BCE when copper was alloyed with tin and used to manufacture Ballybeg type flat axes and associated metalwork. The preceding period is known as the Copper Age and is characterised by the production of flat axes, daggers, halberds and awls in copper. The period is divided into three phases Early Bronze Age 2000-1500 BCE; Middle Bronze Age 1500-1200 BC and Late Bronze Age 1200-c.500 BCE. Ireland, is also known for a relatively large number of Early Bronze Age Burials.
The Early Bronze Age: one of the characteristic artifact types of the Copper/Bronze Age in Ireland is the flat axe. There are 5 main types of flat axes, Lough Ravel c.2200 BCE Ballybeg c.2000 BCE, Killaha c.2000 BCE, Ballyvalley c. 2000-1600 BCE, Derryniggin c. 1600 BCE and a number of metal ingots in the shape of axes.


The Bronze Age in the Andes region of South America is thought to have begun at about 900 BCE when Chavin artisans discovered how to alloy copper with tin. The first objects produced were mostly utilitarian in nature, such as axes, knives, and agricultural implements. Decorative work in gold, silver and copper was already a highly developed tradition, and as the Chavin became more experienced in bronze-working technology they produced many ornate and highly decorative objects for administrative, religious, and other ceremonial purposes.


Eogan, George (1983) The hoards of the Irish later Bronze Age, Dublin : University College, 331p., ISBN 0-901120-77-4
Hall, David and Coles, John (1994) Fenland survey : an essay in landscape and persistence, Archaeological report 1, London : English Heritage, 170 p., ISBN 1-85074-477-7
Pernicka, E., Eibner, C., Öztunah, Ö., Wagener, G.A. (2003) "Early Bronze Age Metallurgy in the Northeast Aegean", In: Wagner, G.A., Pernicka, E. and Uerpmann, H-P. (eds), Troia and the Troad : scientific approaches, Natural science in archaeology, Berlin; London : Springer, ISBN 3-540-43711-8, p. 143–172
Waddell, John (1998) The prehistoric archaeology of Ireland, Galway University Press, 433 p., ISBN 1-901421-10-4

Friday, January 11, 2008

A list of works by the prominent American economist Milton Friedman follows:

Works of Milton Friedman Books and articles for general audiences

"Professor Pigou's Method for Measuring Elasticities of Demand From Budgetary Data" The Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 50, No. 1 (Nov., 1935), pp. 151-163 JSTOR
"Marginal Utility of Money and Elasticities of Demand," The Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 50, No. 3 (May, 1936), pp. 532-533 JSTOR
"The Use of Ranks to Avoid the Assumption of Normality Implicit in the Analysis of Variance," Journal of the American Statistical Association Vol. 32, No. 200 (Dec., 1937), pp. 675-701 JSTOR
"The Inflationary Gap: II. Discussion of the Inflationary Gap," American Economic Review Vol. 32, No. 2, Part 1 (Jun., 1942), pp. 314-320 JSTOR
"The Spendings Tax as a Wartime Fiscal Measure," American Economic Review Vol. 33, No. 1, Part 1 (Mar., 1943), pp. 50-62 JSTOR
Taxing to Prevent Inflation: Techniques for Estimating Revenue Requirements (Columbia U.P. 1943, 236pp) with Carl Shoup and Ruth P. Mack
Income from Independent Professional Practice with Simon Kuznets (1945), Friedman's PhD thesis
"Lange on Price Flexibility and Employment: A Methodological Criticism," American Economic Review Vol. 36, No. 4 (Sep., 1946), pp. 613-631 JSTOR
"Utility Analysis of Choices Involving Risk" with Leonard Savage, 1948, Journal of Political Economy Vol. 56, No. 4 (Aug., 1948), pp. 279-304 JSTOR
"A Monetary and Fiscal Framework for Economic Stability", 1948, American Economic Review, Vol. 38, No. 3 (Jun., 1948), pp. 245-264 JSTOR
"A Fiscal and Monetary Framework for Economic Stability," Econometrica Vol. 17, Supplement: Report of the Washington Meeting (Jul., 1949), pp. 330-332 JSTOR
"The Marshallian Demand Curve," The Journal of Political Economy Vol. 57, No. 6 (Dec., 1949), pp. 463-495 JSTOR
"Wesley C. Mitchell as an Economic Theorist," The Journal of Political Economy Vol. 58, No. 6 (Dec., 1950), pp. 465-493 JSTOR
"Some Comments on the Significance of Labor Unions for Economic Policy", 1951, in D. McC. Wright, editor, The Impact of the Union.
"Commodity-Reserve Currency," Journal of Political Economy Vol. 59, No. 3 (Jun., 1951), pp. 203-232 JSTOR
"Price, Income, and Monetary Changes in Three Wartime Periods," American Economic Review Vol. 42, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Sixty-fourth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association (May, 1952), pp. 612-625 JSTOR
"The Expected-Utility Hypothesis and the Measurability of Utility", with Leonard Savage, 1952, Journal of Political Economy Vol. 60, No. 6 (Dec., 1952), pp. 463-474 JSTOR
The Methodology of Positive Economics (1953)
Essays in Positive Economics (1953)
"Choice, Chance, and the Personal Distribution of Income," Journal of Political Economy Vol. 61, No. 4 (Aug., 1953), pp. 277-290 JSTOR
"The Quantity Theory of Money: A restatement", 1956, in Friedman, editor, Studies in Quantity Theory.
A Theory of the Consumption Function (1957)
"A Statistical Illusion in Judging Keynesian Models" with Gary S. Becker, Journal of Political Economy Vol. 65, No. 1 (Feb., 1957), pp. 64-75 JSTOR
"The Supply of Money and Changes in Prices and Output", 1958, in Relationship of Prices to Economic Stability and Growth.
"The Demand for Money: Some Theoretical and Empirical Results," Journal of Political Economy Vol. 67, No. 4 (Aug., 1959), pp. 327-351 JSTOR
A Program for Monetary Stability (Fordham University Press, 1960) 110 pp online version
"Monetary Data and National Income Estimates," Economic Development and Cultural Change Vol. 9, No. 3, (Apr., 1961), pp. 267-286 JSTOR
"The Lag in Effect of Monetary Policy," Journal of Political EconomyVol. 69, No. 5 (Oct., 1961), pp. 447-466 JSTOR
Price Theory ISBN 0-202-06074-8 (1962), college textbook online version
"The Interpolation of Time Series by Related Series," Journal of the American Statistical Association Vol. 57, No. 300 (Dec., 1962), pp. 729-757 JSTOR
"Should There be an Independent Monetary Authority?", in L.B. Yeager, editor, In Search of a Monetary Constitution
Inflation: Causes and consequences, 1963.
"Money and Business Cycles," The Review of Economics and Statistics Vol. 45, No. 1, Part 2, Supplement (Feb., 1963), pp. 32-64 JSTOR
A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960, with Anna J. Schwartz, 1963; part 3 reprinted as The Great Contraction
"Money and Business Cycles" with A. J. Schwartz, 1963, Review of Economics & Statistics.
"The Relative Stability of Monetary Velocity and the Investment Multiplier in the United States, 1898-1958", with D. Meiselman, 1963, in Stabilization Policies.
"A Reply to Donald Hester", with D. Meiselman, 1964
"Reply to Ando and Modigliani and to DePrano and Mayer," with David Meiselman. American Economic Review Vol. 55, No. 4 (Sep., 1965), pp. 753-785 JSTOR
"Interest Rates and the Demand for Money," Journal of Law and Economics Vol. 9 (Oct., 1966), pp. 71-85 JSTOR
The Balance of Payments: Free Versus Fixed Exchange Rates with Robert V. Roosa (1967)]
"The Monetary Theory and Policy of Henry Simons," Journal of Law and Economics Vol. 10 (Oct., 1967), pp. 1-13 JSTOR
"What Price Guideposts?", in G.P. Schultz, R.Z. Aliber, editors, Guidelines
"The Role of Monetary Policy." American Economic Review, Vol. 58, No. 1 (Mar., 1968), pp. 1-17 JSTOR presidential address to American Economics Association
"Money: the Quantity Theory", 1968, IESS
"The Definition of Money: Net Wealth and Neutrality as Criteria" with Anna J. Schwartz, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking Vol. 1, No. 1 (Feb., 1969), pp. 1-14 JSTOR
'Monetary vs. Fiscal Policy with Walter W. Heller (1969)
"Comment on Tobin", 1970, Quarterly Journal of Economics
"Monetary Statistics of the United States: Sources, methods. with Anna J. Schwartz, 1970.
"A Theoretical Framework for Monetary Analysis," Journal of Political Economy Vol. 78, No. 2 (Mar., 1970), pp. 193-238 JSTOR
The Counter-Revolution in Monetary Theory 1970.
"A Monetary Theory of National Income", 1971, Journal of Political Economy
"Government Revenue from Inflation," Journal of Political Economy Vol. 79, No. 4 (Jul., 1971), pp. 846-856 JSTOR
"Have Monetary Policies Failed?" American Economic Review Vol. 62, No. 1/2 (1972), pp. 11-18 JSTOR
"Comments on the Critics," Journal of Political Economy Vol. 80, No. 5 (Sep., 1972), pp. 906-950 JSTOR
"Comments on the Critics", 1974, in Gordon, ed. Milton Friedman and his Critics.
"Monetary Correction: A proposal for escalation clauses to reduce the cost of ending inflation", 1974
The Optimum Quantity of Money: And Other Essays (1976) online version
Milton Friedman in Australia, 1975 (1975)
Milton Friedman's Monetary Framework: A Debate with His Critics (1975)
"Comments on Tobin and Buiter", 1976, in J. Stein, editor, Monetarism.
"Inflation and Unemployment: Nobel lecture", 1977, Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 85, pp. 451-72. JSTOR
"Interrelations between the United States and the United Kingdom, 1873-1975.", with A.J. Schwartz, 1982, J Int Money and Finance
Monetary Trends in the United States and the United Kingdom: Their relations to income, prices and interest rates, 1876-1975. with Anna J. Schwartz, 1982
"Monetary Policy: Theory and Practice," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking Vol. 14, No. 1 (Feb., 1982), pp. 98-118 JSTOR
"Monetary Policy: Tactics versus strategy", 1984, in Moore, editor, To Promote Prosperity.
"Lessons from the 1979-1982 Monetary Policy Experiment, " Papers and Proceedings, American Economic Association. pp. 397-401. (1984).
"Has Government Any Role in Money?" with Anna J. Schwartz, 1986, JME
"Quantity Theory of Money", in J. Eatwell, M. Milgate, P. Newman, eds., The New Palgrave (1998)
"Money and the Stock Market," Journal of Political Economy Vol. 96, No. 2 (Apr., 1988), pp. 221-245 JSTOR
"Bimetallism Revisited," Journal of Economic Perspectives Vol. 4, No. 4 (Autumn, 1990), pp. 85-104 JSTOR
"The Crime of 1873," Journal of Political Economy Vol. 98, No. 6 (Dec., 1990), pp. 1159-1194 JSTOR
"Franklin D. Roosevelt, Silver, and China," Journal of Political Economy Vol. 100, No. 1 (Feb., 1992), pp. 62-83 JSTOR

Thursday, January 10, 2008

André Couto
André Couto (born December 14, 1976 in Lisbon) is a Portuguese racing driver who races with a Macau license.

André Couto started his career in Karting in Macau influenced by the popular Macau Grand Prix and friends who competed in the local Karting championship. He rapidly enjoyed success and started competing and winning in international level. He moved to racing cars in 1995 where he competed in European Formula Opel Lotus (Winning a round in the Estoril Circuit). 1995 was also the debut year in the Formula Three event of the Macau Grand Prix where he briefly led after a duel with race winner Ralf Schumacher.

André Couto Formula Three
Couto graduated to Formula 3000 in 1998 and stayed there for 1999 and 2000. Although he scored points on several occasions, he never achieved any great success. His best result was third place at the Nürburgring in 2000.

An assortment of drives
Since 2005, Couto has competed in the Super GT Championship in the GT500 category.

Wednesday, January 9, 2008

The 1966 UK general election on 31 March 1966 and was called by sitting Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson. Wilson's decision to call an election turned on the fact that his government, elected only two years previously in 1964 had an unworkable small majority of only 4 MPs. Wilson's hope that he would be returned to office with a larger majority had been encouraged by the government's victory in a by-election in Kingston upon Hull North. In the end the hope was vindicated: the Labour government was returned with a much larger majority of 96.

Headline Swing: 2.70% to Labour

Summary of GB vote (excluding Northern Ireland)
From Conservative to Labour (46 seats): Aberdeen South, Bebington, Bedford, Bedfordshire South, Berwick and East Lothian, Billericay, Birmingham Perry Barr, Bradford West, Brentford and Chiswick, Bristol North East, Bristol North West, Cambridge, Cardiff North, Chislehurst, Conway, Croydon South, Eton and Slough, Exeter, Hampstead, Harrow East, High Peak, Hornchurch, Ilford South, Lancaster, Lewisham North, Lewisham West, Middleton and Prestwich, Monmouth, Norwood, Nottingham South, Oxford, Plymouth Sutton, Portsmouth South, Preston North, Reading, Rugby, Rushcliffe, Sheffield, Heeley, Smethwick, Southampton Test, Stretford, The Wrekin, Uxbridge, Walthamstow East, Yarmouth and YorkUnited Kingdom general election, 1966 From Conservative to Liberal (4 seats): Aberdeenshire West, Cheadle, Cornwall, North and Roxburgh, Selkirk and Peebles From Labour to Liberal (1 seat): Colne Valley From Liberal to Labour (2 seats): Cardiganshire and Caithness and Sutherland
Televised declarations

MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1966

Tuesday, January 8, 2008

Qoppa (uppercase Ϙ, lowercase ϙ) is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. It has been attested in early Aeolic and Boeotian scripts, while the sound [kʷ] is attested in the Linear B syllabary. Greek dropped the sound, a labial-velar plosive, it presented in the post-Mycenaean era, and the letter survived for a few more centuries in certain dialects before becoming altogether extinct by pre-Classical times. There are two very different glyphs for qoppa: "archaic qoppa" (Ϙ ϙ) used to write words and "numeric qoppa" (Ϟ ϟ) used in modern Greek legal documentation.
Qoppa was originally borrowed from the Phoenicians, who had /q/ (a voiceless uvular plosive) in their language. It was later imported into the Etruscan alphabet, and through this eventually into the Latin alphabet, in its current form Q. It was also adopted into the early Cyrillic alphabet, as koppa (Ҁ, ҁ).

Monday, January 7, 2008

Götaland (listen ), Gothia, Gothland, Gautland, Geatland is a historical land of Sweden. Geographically it is located in the south of Sweden, bounded to the north by Svealand, with the deep woods of Tiveden, Tylöskog and Kolmården marking the border.
Götaland once consisted of petty kingdoms, which its inhabitants called Gautar in Old Norse. It is generally agreed that these were the same as the Geatas, the people of the hero Beowulf in England's national epic by the same name. The region is also the traditional origin of the Goths (more specifically the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea).

Västergötland and Östergötland, once rival kingdoms themselves, constitute Götaland proper. The Geatish kings, however, belong to the domain of Norse mythology.
Geatland is the land in which the medieval hero of the poem,Beowulf, is said to have lived.
It was only late in the Middle Ages that Götaland began to be perceived as a part of Sweden. In Old Norse and in Old English sources, Gautland/Geatland is still treated as a separate country from Sweden. In Sögubrot af Nokkrum for instance, Kolmården between Svealand and Östergötland is described as the border between Sweden and Ostrogothia (...Kolmerkr, er skilr Svíþjóð ok Eystra-Gautland...), and in Hervarar saga, king Ingold I rides to Sweden through Östergötland: Ingi konungr fór með hirð sína ok sveit nokkura ok hafði lítinn her. Hann reið austr um Smáland ok í eystra Gautland ok svá í Svíþjóð. The lord, Bo Jonsson Grip, was probably the one who was best acquainted with the geography of the Swedish kingdom since he owned more than half of it. In 1384, he stated in his will that the kingdom consisted of Swerige (Sweden, i.e. Svealand), Österland (i.e. Finland) and Göthaland (i.e. Götaland).
The small countries to the south of Finnveden, Kind, Möre, Njudung, Tjust, Tveta, Värend, Ydre were merged into the province of Småland (literally: [the] "small countries"). Off the coast of Småland was the island of Öland, which became a separate province.
Dal to the north west became the province of Dalsland.
Småland, Öland and Dalsland were already seen as lands belonging to Götaland in (Scandinavian) medieval times (12th–15th century).
In the Treaty of Roskilde (1658), the Danish kingdom ceded what is today often referred to as Skåneland and Bohuslän to Sweden. Skåneland, which had constituted the eastern part of Denmark, became the Swedish provinces of Skåne, Halland and Blekinge. The new provinces came to be counted as part of Götaland.
The island of Gotland shifted allegiance between the Swedes and the Danes several times. Although the island may be perceived to have closer links to Svealand or to Denmark (Scania), it is counted as belonging to Götaland.
Värmland originally belonged to the Göta Court of Appeal, but the province changed to become part of the Court of Appeal for Svealand for a period of time in the early 19th century. Even though Värmland historically was a part of Götaland, it has since that time generally been counted as part of Svealand, although it is now part of the Court of Appeal for Western Sweden.

Today, Götaland has no administrative function and is thus an unofficial entity, but it is generally considered to be one of three Swedish lands or regions. It is made up of ten provinces, based loosely on the area originally under the jurisdiction of the Göta Court of Appeals (established in 1634), to which the Scanian lands, Gotland and Bohuslän were added in 1658-1679:
Blekinge Bohuslän Dalsland Gotland Halland Skåne Småland Västergötland Öland Östergötland
Skåne, Blekinge and Halland were a Danish land known as the Scanian lands or the Eastern Province until 1658 when the Treaty of Roskilde ceded the region to Sweden. Furthermore, Bohuslän belonged to Norway until 1658, and Gotland belonged to Denmark 1361-1645 and 1676-1679. Since 1820, Scania and Blekinge form a separate court of appeal district under the Scania and Blekinge Court of Appeal in Malmö.


Wednesday, January 2, 2008

A list of henchman from the 1962 James Bond film Dr. No from the List of James Bond henchmen.

The Three Blind Mice
Dr No's photographer (named Freelance by James Bond) is an unnamed female photographer (Though in the novel,her name is Annabelle Chung) working for Doctor Julius No of SPECTRE in the 1962 James Bond film Dr. No.
The photographer, an attractive dark-haired women of Central or South American descent, first appears in the film at Kingston airport where she attempts to take a photograph of James Bond as he arrives in Jamaica. Bond half-consciously shields his face with his hat and gets into the car of Mr. Jones also of SPECTRE.
She later reappears in the film, again sent by Dr. No to take another photograph of Bond as he is discussing plans with Felix Leiter and Quarrel at a Jamaican calypso restaurant. This time she is spotted by Bond who orders Quarrel to seize her. Bond asks her who she is working for and she replies that she was working for the Daily Gleaner, a local newspaper in Kingston. When Bond asks the head waiter to check it out, she is forced to change her story and confess that she was a freelance photographer. She then attempts to physically harm Quarrel by cutting his face with a broken flashbulb from her camera. Quarrel seems unaffected and threatens to break her arm. Bond then destroys her film and she is set free, never to be seen again, after stating that the men will be sorry for their actions.
Marguerite LeWars, who portrayed the photographer, was the reigning Miss Jamaica at the time of shooting in 1962.

List of James Bond henchmen in Dr. NoList of James Bond henchmen in Dr. No Professor R. J. Dent
Miss Taro (Zena Marshall) is a villainess from Dr. No, the series' debut film. She is a Bond girl and a Henchwoman. She is a secretary in Government House. Kingston, Jamaica, to Colonial Secretary, Pleydell-Smith. She also is a henchwoman to Doctor Julius No; only Bond discovers this. He first meets her at Government House. When she grasps that Bond and Pleydell-Smith are talking about Dr. No, she spies through the keyhole of his office door. Bond then persuades her to a rendez-vous at her house outside of Kingston; he does not know she is a honey trap. Enroute to her house, Bond eludes Spectre pursuers and arrives at her house; she is surprised.
Miss Taro then copulates with Bond, making time for Professor Dent to go there and kill him. She is the first Bond Girl agent double-oh seven seduces while on mission; the previous liaison was Sylvia Trench, who is unrelated to the mission. Bond then telephones for a taxi to collect them for dinner out. She boards the taxi, then understands it is a police trap, not a taxi; she is arrested, Bond remains in her house, awaiting Professor dent to kill him.

Tuesday, January 1, 2008

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. See International Phonetic Alphabet for a pronunciation key.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is a form of pronunciation of the English language which has been long perceived as uniquely prestigious amongst British accents and is the usual accent taught to non-native speakers learning British English.
The earlier mentions of the term can found in H. C. Wyld's A Short History of English (1914) and in Daniel Jones's An Outline of English Phonetics, although the latter stated that he only used the term "for want of a better".

Except in the last bastions of "real" RP use, the pronunciation has in fact changed over time. For instance, foreigners learning their English accents from Royal speeches would find they are looked at very strangely in the streets of Britain, because the Queen's "speech voice" has changed little since the 1950s, and now sounds archaic even to most people who would consider that they speak "correctly" (i.e. RP).
The change in RP may even be observed in the home of "BBC English". The BBC accent from the 1950s was distinctly different from today's: a news report from the '50s is instantly recognisable as such, and a mock-1950s BBC voice is often used for comic effect in TV or radio programmes wishing to satirize outdated social attitudes such as the Harry Enfield Show and its "Mr. Cholmondeley-Warner" sketches.

Changing status of Received Pronunciation
Traditionally, Received Pronunciation is the accent of English which is "the everyday speech of families of Southern English persons whose menfolk have been educated at the great public boarding schools" (Daniel Jones, English Pronouncing Dictionary, 1926—he had earlier called it "Public School Pronunciation"), and which conveys no information about that speaker's region of origin prior to attending the school.
It is the business of educated people to speak so that no-one may be able to tell in what county their childhood was passed.
A. Burrell, Recitation. A Handbook for Teachers in Public Elementary School, 1891.
For many years, the use of Received Pronunciation was considered to be a trait of education. It was a standard practice until around the 1950s for university students with regional accents to modify their speech to be closer to RP. As a result, at a time when only around five percent of the population attended universities, elitist notions sprang up around it and those who used it may have considered those who did not to be less educated than themselves. Historically the most prestigious British educational institutions (Oxford, Cambridge, many public schools) were located in England, so those who were educated there would pick up the accents of their peers. (There have always been exceptions: for example, Morningside, Edinburgh and Kelvinside in Glasgow had Scottish "pan loaf" accents aspiring to a similar prestige.)

Traditional status
From the 1970s onwards, attitudes towards Received Pronunciation have been slowly changing. One of the primary catalysts for this was the influence in the 1960s of Labour prime minister Harold Wilson. Unusually for a recent prime minister, he spoke with a strong regional Yorkshire accent, exaggerated, some said, to appeal to the working classes his party represented.
As a result of the trend begun by Wilson and others during the 1960s, the accents of the English regions and of Scotland, Wales, and Ireland are today more likely to be considered to be on a par with Received Pronunciation. BBC reporters no longer need to, and often do not, use Received Pronunciation, which in some contexts may sound out of place, and be discouraged in favour of less "cultivated" accents.

Received Pronunciation Changing attitudes

A table containing the consonant phonemes is given below

The vowel phonemes of Received Pronunciation are shown in the following tables:
Examples: /ɪ/ in kit and mirror, /ʊ/ in foot and put, /ɛ/ in dress and merry, /ʌ/ in strut and curry, /æ/ in trap and marry, /ɒ/ in lot and orange, /ə/ in the first syllable of ago and in the second of sofa.
Examples: /iː/ in fleece, /uː/ in goose, /ɜː/ in nurse and bird, /ɔː/ in north and thought, /ɑː/ in father and start.
RP's long vowels are slightly diphthongised. Especially the vowels /iː/ and /uː/ which are often narrowly transcribed in phonetic literature as diphthongs [ɪj] and [ʊw].
Although these vowels are traditionally described as long vowels, whereby they have received the <ː> mark after their symbol, the length also varies according to the surrounding sounds. If a long vowel is preceded by a voiceless consonant sound (e.g. /p k s/) its length will be equivalent to that of the short vowels, with the exception of /ɑː/ which becomes halfway between long and short. e.g. Burt = [bɜt], seat = [sit], garth = [gɑˑθ].
The short vowel /æ/ becomes longer if it is followed by a voiced consonant sound. Thus, in narrow transcription bat = [bæt] and bad = [bæːd]. In natural speech, the plosives /t/ and /d/ may be unreleased utterance-finally, thus distinction between these words would rest mostly on vowel length.
Examples: /ɪə/ in near and theatre, /eɪ/ in face, /ɛə/ in square and Mary, /əʊ/ in goat, /aɪ/ in price, /aʊ/ in mouth, /ɔɪ/ in choice, /ʊə/ in tour.
The off-glide of /eɪ/ (and also the off-glides of /ij/ and /uw/) can be predicted by a phonological rule and so are not represented in some underlying representations.
There are also the triphthongs /aɪə/ as in fire and /aʊə/ as in tower. The realizations sketched in the following table are not phonemically distinctive, though the difference between /aʊə/ /ɑɪə/ and /ɑ:/ may be neutralised under [ɑ:] or [ä:]
Not all reference sources use the same system of transcription. In particular
Most of these variants are used in the transcription devised by Clive Upton for the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1993) and now used in many other Oxford University Press dictionaries.

/æ/ as in trap is often written /a/.
/e/ as in dress is often written /ɛ/.
/ɜː/ as in nurse is sometimes written /əː/.
/aɪ/ as in price is sometimes written /ʌɪ/.
/aʊ/ as in mouse is sometimes written /ɑʊ/
/ɛə/ as in square is sometimes written /eə/, and is also sometimes treated as a long monophthong /ɛː/. Vowels

Unlike most forms of English English and American English, RP is a broad A accent, so words like bath and chance appear with /ɑː/ and not /æ/.
RP is a non-rhotic accent, meaning /r/ does not occur unless followed immediately by a vowel.
Like other accents of southern England, RP has undergone the wine-whine merger so the phoneme /ʍ/ is not present.
RP uses [ɫ], called dark l, when /l/ occurs at the end of a syllable, as in well, and also for syllabic l, like in little or apple. (whereas it has been reported Historical variation

Accent (linguistics)
Prestige dialect
English English
Estuary English
General American
Prescription and description